TAPP Radio Ep. 35 TRANSCRIPT
Big Ideas: The Essential Concepts of A&P
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Episode 35 Transcript
Big Ideas: Essential Concepts of A&P
Kevin Patton: David Ogilvy once said that “the big ideas are usually simple ideas.”
Aileen: Welcome to The A&P Professor, a few minutes to focus on teaching human anatomy and physiology with host Kevin Patton.
Kevin Patton: In today’s episode, I discuss cholesterol, oxytocin, stress and the big ideas of A&P.
Kevin Patton: I think all of us discuss cholesterol in our courses, and its various roles in the human body as a precursor to some of the hormones, the steroid hormones, and as a component of cellular membranes. And, we probably also mention the fact that there are cholesterol particles that are floating around in our blood, and they are in the form of these little balls that form by way of a protein called an apolipoprotein. Apolipoprotein B, or just ApoB for short, is sort of the organizing molecule for these lipoprotein particles, including the low density lipoproteins, LDLs, or non-high density lipoproteins. That is, non-HDL cholesterol particles. And we know that the more of these lower density particles we have floating around in our blood, the higher our risk for cardiovascular disease is. So, that’s something that we know well.
Kevin Patton: And I’m glad we do, because I’ve inherited that characteristic of having high LDL levels in my blood. And so, I’ve taken steps to reduce that because, heck, I already have enough cardiovascular risk: a history of heart disease in my family, I’m a male, I’m a male over a certain age, I’m an A&P professor, therefore I have a high stress job. You know? I have all kinds of … Well, then again, I’m a podcaster, and that helps me work my stress out by telling all of you about it. You’re my therapy, so that reduces my cardiovascular risk a little bit, I’m hoping. And so does exercise, and so does taking statins, which I do.
Kevin Patton: So, there are a number of things we can counteract that with. But, you know that the monitoring of cholesterol levels is a very important part of primary medical care in our society. And it turns out that the various bodies that make recommendations about, you know, how and why we should be doing that are in the process of revisiting those guidelines in light of current information to see whether any changes are needed. And we won’t see that for a few more years, but they’re working on it. And not just in the United States, but in other areas of the world as well, like Europe for example.
Kevin Patton: And when those recommendations come out, there’s a possibility that we’re going to be seeing a shift in how we do screening, and how we do health monitoring for these cardiovascular risks related to the buildup of plaques in our blood vessels. And, there might be a shift away from focusing on LDL levels, or non-HDL cholesterol levels, and looking instead or in addition at the ApoB levels. Because, we’re thinking based on current evidence that the rise and fall of ApoB in our bloodstream is giving us a more direct measurement of the number of particles that there are floating around in our blood. And those particles could be really big or really small. And, you know, the total amount of LDL is what’s being measured, but that’s not telling us the number of particles. Maybe the ApoB is a better measure of how many particles.
Kevin Patton: And there are a number of cardiologists and researchers who are really pushing for ApoB, which is a very inexpensive blood test. An ApoB blood test to be the primary way that we assess cardiovascular risk in this regard, instead of the LDL ones. Now, I’m thinking … not being an expert in this at all … But, my uninformed opinion, or relatively uninformed opinion, is that we’re going to see some shift, but not a replacement; that we’re going to start to see ApoB tests being given more routinely and used in conjunction with LDL tests. But there are some cardiologists who feel like we don’t need the LDL test. The ApoB test tells us all we need to know. So, just a little heads-up, and maybe we can start having little bit of conversation when we’re talking about those cholesterol particles in our blood and mentioned the ApoB, and maybe emphasize it a little more than we have before because it might be a major player in the stories we tell about how cardiovascular disease works in the human body.
Kevin Patton: We know that at the end of pregnancy, in the ideal situation, oxytocin levels increase, and that has the effect of increasing the smooth muscle contractions in the uterus, in those myometrial smooth muscle fibers. That’s going to enhance the whole process of labor and delivery. So, that we’ve known for a long, long time. But what we have not known and still are kind of working out is, how does oxytocin do that? Not long ago, the Journal of Physiology had a paper that does a good job of explaining most of it, and maybe even all of what’s going on by identifying a kind of potassium channel that had previously not been identified in uterine smooth muscle. It’s called SL02.1 if you want to know, but we’ll just call it that potassium channel. And what they found was that oxytocin inhibits that potassium channel. So, it’s going to inhibit the leaking of potassium out of the cell.
Kevin Patton: And when it does that, it’s going to cause a depolarization of the membrane of those uterine smooth muscle cells. And when the smooth muscle membrane depolarizes, it’s going to eventually open up some of those voltage-gated calcium channels that we know are there and in all muscle cell membranes. And when the calcium flows in, because those voltage-gated calcium channels have now been triggered, then that’s going to contribute to uterine contraction. So, here’s something we didn’t know before. What’s interesting about this for me is that it brings to play something that our students have already been talking about, right? I mean, they’ve already been talking about the role of the action potential in muscle contraction back when they were talking about skeletal muscle contraction. And they know the role of depolarizing the membrane in triggering those voltage-gated calcium channels so the calcium will rush in and get the whole process of muscle contraction going. So, the students already run across that part when they were talking about muscles.
Kevin Patton: They also went into some deep detail about how potassium effects membrane potential, and how opening and closing ion channels in a membrane affect action potential, or membrane potential in general, but certainly create an action potential and change resting membrane potential. And they did all that probably, or most of that, when they were discussing the neuron and how neurons work. So, here’s elements of stories that have come up more than once before, and now here it is again in a different context, the context of explaining how oxytocin works.
Kevin Patton: Now, I’m not sure I’m necessarily going to go into all of this when I talk about oxytocin in my course. I mean, they already have … are pretty overwhelmed with what I’m having them learning to begin with, but it’s going to inform my story. It’s going to give me a little bit more background as a storyteller, and there might be some opportunities, especially when students ask questions about the how’s and the why’s, and often there are those kinds of questions, right? We’ll have that there and say, “Well, you know, an emerging idea is here’s how oxytocin might help with that; how it might work.”
Kevin Patton: This podcast is sponsored by HAPS, the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society, promoting excellence in the teaching of human anatomy and physiology for over 30 years. Go visit HAPS at theAPprofessor.org/haps.
Kevin Patton: Stress. That’s a topic that we A&P teachers are interested in, right? Because, the topic of physiological stress comes up a lot in the A&P course. And not only that, the phenomenon of experiencing stress … That comes up in our course, too … Not only in our students, but in ourselves as well. So, I was interested when I ran across some information that came out in a journal article from some researchers from the University of British Columbia. They found that smelling a romantic partner’s clothing was associated with lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol in women’s blood.
Kevin Patton: So, in a nutshell, what they did was they took almost 100 couples, and they had … And they were opposite-sex couples. So, they took the male partner and had them wear a new t-shirt, previously unworn t-shirt for 24 hours without using deodorant, or scented products, or eating food that caused a change their body odor, and no smoking; anything that would affect the smell. And then after that was done, they took the female partners and put them into a somewhat stressful situation. I think it was a mock job interview or something like that. And so, there was a certain level of stress that was recorded in most of those women, because their cortisol levels went up. So, they did that with … The women were just wearing a fresh t-shirt. And yep, a lot of these women had a certain moderate level of stress, or at least of increased cortisol levels.
Kevin Patton: Then, they tried it with having the women wear the t-shirt from the romantic partner that definitely had the smell of that person on them on the shirt. And when they did that, they found the cortisol levels were lower. So, they’re thinking, well, the smell of the romantic partner, the smell of a loved one is going to reduce or in some way modulate that stress response, at least as indicated by the of changing levels of cortisol. And they did another part of the experiment that was interesting as well. They had women wear a shirt from a man who was not their romantic partner, a strange man. And so, they found that in those cases the women’s cortisol levels went even higher than it would have otherwise.
Kevin Patton: So, they had sort of a baseline level of stress without any smells. And their stress level went down when they could smell the romantic partner, and it went up when they could smell a male who was not the romantic partner. So, that tells us a little bit more than we knew before about stress and about the relationship of different smells to stress, and I think that we’re going to find that that extends to other kinds of smells as well. Maybe our stress is reduced when we smell a pet, or one of our children, the smell of one of our children, or ice cream. I think that would do it for me. I know eating ice cream, well, I don’t know if it reduces my stress, but I feel like it must, so I do it. Maybe the smell of ice cream will be enough to lower stress. I know the smell of a circus lot reduces stress. A smell of a zoo, which a lot of people don’t like … To me, that is stress reducing.
Kevin Patton: So, maybe there are even quirky smells that are individualized to us as individuals, and maybe this has some practical applications. Maybe, you know, it wasn’t that long ago when I was discussing test anxiety on this podcast. And so, maybe we should recommend that our students, when it’s exam day, that they were a piece of clothing that had been worn by a loved one. And maybe that’ll help reduce their stress or reducer their test anxiety. I don’t know. Somebody out there do a study and let’s see if that works.
Kevin Patton: A searchable transcript and a captioned audiogram of this episode are funded by AAA, the American Association of Anatomists at anatomy.org.
Kevin Patton: As I mentioned in episode 12, in which I focus on storytelling is a teaching strategy, I often tell my students that I’m telling them stories about the structure and function of the body as I discuss A&P concepts. And when I’m storytelling, I often ask them to try and distill from the stories what I sometimes call “the big ideas of human biology.” When we come across those big ideas again in later stories, those told later in the course, and we always do come across those big ideas again, I once again point them out. I want students to get in the habit of looking for those big ideas. I want them to understand that it’s these big ideas that provide the framework for understanding the whole arc of the story of human biology. I want my students to gain skills in identifying the underlying themes of the series of stories that make up our current understanding of human biology. I want them to be able to pick out the major characters and the minor characters in the story.
Kevin Patton: When we tell a story in A&P, aren’t we really wanting them to understand the characters deeply? What structures are involved? Which molecules are involved? Why do they act the way they do? What’s their motivation? Isn’t that how students understand mechanisms? This structure has a certain shape, and that shape determines whether they can do this or that. This solution has a certain concentration of this or that substance, which determines what will happen next. This membrane has certain receptors or channels or carriers that determine what will happen, or what cannot happen here at this location in the body. Or another character, this molecule, it has a positive charge, and that one has a negative charge. And that will tell us how they’ll interact. Oh, look, these two molecules both have the same positive charge. How are they going to interact?
Kevin Patton: When we start thinking this way, when our students start thinking this way, that it’s all a bunch of characters that are interacting in certain ways and have certain motivations, certain mechanisms that they exhibit, then all of these complex structures and processes of human biology come alive in a way that just doesn’t happen in a simple listing or description of them that we typically see or hear in a science course. These structures and processes now have a meaning that they didn’t have before. Of course, before we can start getting our students to gain skills and identifying the big ideas so that they can really focus on them and work on understanding them, we need to be able to do that. If this is new for us, a new way of looking at these stories we know so well, how do we ourselves gain those skills of finding the big ideas? I think just looking at it from that fresh perspective we have, when we first realize that there are indeed a set of big ideas to be found, then that alone may be enough to get us on the road to gaining the needed skills.
Kevin Patton: Another way is to look at the big ideas that have been identified by our colleagues. Such examples can jumpstart our thinking and help push us along in developing our own insights, I think. A place where I recommend starting with that is a book called The Core Concepts of Physiology, A New Paradigm for Teaching Physiology. It’s put together by Joel Michael, William Cliff, Jenny McFarland, and Harold Modell, and Ann Wright. And it’s published on behalf of the APS, that is, the American Physiological Society, and produced by the publisher, Springer. I mentioned this book in the preview to this episode, and I’ll have the links not only in the preview but in the show notes and episode page for this episode.
Kevin Patton: So, in this book, which I’ll just use the main part of the title, The Core Concepts of Physiology, they identify through a process described very carefully in the book itself. They identify 15 core concepts of physiology. So, among them are things like … Well, I’ll just read them off real fast. There’s only 15 of them and I have them listed here, so might as well. First one is the evolution. Second one is homeostasis. Third one is causality. Next one is energy, then structure and function. Then the next one is cell theory. Then the next one is levels of organization. The next one is cell-cell communication. Then, cell membrane. Then, flow down gradients, genes to proteins, interdependence, mass balance, physics and chemistry. And lastly, scientific reasoning. Okay, so that gives you an idea of some of the big ideas of physiology. And of course there are similar big ideas in anatomy.
Kevin Patton: But let’s take an example. One that popped out to me the first time I saw this list is flow down gradients. And I thought to myself, “Wow, the flow of something down a gradient comes up in all kinds of stories we tell, doesn’t it?” For example, the flow of particles down a concentration gradient, the flow of ions down an electrical gradient, the flow of air down a pressure gradient in the respiratory airways, or the flow of blood down a pressure gradient in the circulatory system, or the flow of lymph in the lymphatic system, or urine in the urinary tract. Okay, that’s enough examples, but you can see where this idea of a flow down a gradient is a really important, a really big idea in understanding human structure and function. And it’s a pretty simple idea, I think. Once you get it, once you identify that as the idea behind all of these different examples, then those examples become far less complex because students can immediately recognize that simple idea that is behind what at first glance might seem like a complex process.
Kevin Patton: Now, the list in the book, The Core Concepts of Physiology, gives us some big, big ideas, but I think each of them has other big or maybe not quite so big ideas built into them. And I’m on a quest. I’m on a quest to identify all of those smaller ideas that are embedded within these big ideas. That is, the kind of big ideas. Yeah, I’ll call them that, the kind of big ideas, ’cause those are the ones that I’m really focusing on in my course. That’s a quest that I think will never be over, but I’m okay with that. Heck, I’m kinda glad it’ll never be over ’cause it’s so much fun looking for all of them. I don’t want my quest to end, really. But I do want to still continue to find more and more of these core concepts, these big ideas that are embedded in the story of human biology.
Kevin Patton: Now, this may remind you of something that I discussed in a previous episode. In episode eight, I brought up the idea of running concept lists. And what that is is where I encourage my students, as a practice in their study of anatomy and physiology, to keep a running list for each of these big ideas, or each of these recurring concepts if you want to call them that. And they keep that list, they run that list … Oh, you know, like in the back of their notebook in a separate notebook. So, at the top of one page they might have something like “Gradients are flow down gradients.” And then, every time it comes up throughout A&P One and A&P Two, they … You know, once they get into the habit of this, they go to their running concept list and say, “Oh, I have a concept list for flow down gradients,” so they add it to it.
Kevin Patton: So, when they get to, you know, the flow of blood down a pressure gradient in the circulatory system, then can say, “Ah-ha, another gradient. I’ll add it to my gradient list.” And then, when you get to lymph and you talk about the pressure gradients there, and how and why lymph flows the way it flows, and what direction it flows in and say, “Ah-ha, there’s the gradient again.” And they can put it on their gradient list.
Kevin Patton: And so, there it’s sort of a continuous process of running all these lists. And every time they come across a new big idea, then they … Maybe it’ll be the second or third time they’ve seen it, and so then they realize, “Ah-ha, that’s a big idea. I need to make a concept list for that.” Or, I might tell them in class, “Hey, this is a big idea. You might want to start a concept list on this, because this is something we’re going to be seeing time and time again.” And of course when we get across those, or come across those big ideas, I’m going to point them out when I can. I’m going to say it. “Look, here’s a gradient again. Here’s another example of how knowing about gradients and how they work is going to help us understand a process in the human body.”
Kevin Patton: So, that’s the sort of big idea of big ideas. That is, the big idea for today on this whole segment is, let’s start looking at the big ideas. Let’s start emphasizing those as we tell the story of human anatomy and physiology. I think it’ll help our students build a conceptual framework where they can take new information that they get as it comes along, and put it someplace where it makes sense inside their mind, because they’re building this conceptual framework. And we’re helping them do this by pointing out examples of big ideas that they need to grab a hold of and put somewhere in their head, or at least in their notebook at first and then it’ll get in their head. So, that’s the big idea for today.
Kevin Patton: Hey, I’d love to get your feedback on these big ideas. What are some more of them? What are some big ideas that are especially important in anatomy? Like, maybe the role of fibers and giving strength to tissues, or the bigger idea of how the extra cellular matrix of a tissue imparts specific characteristics to each type of tissue, or the even bigger idea of how different tissues have different roles in the structure of an organ, or what constitutes an organ. This riff could go on all day, but let’s hear from you about some more of the big ideas of anatomy and physiology, or anything else you want to talk about.
Kevin Patton: Just call the podcast hotline at 1-833-LION-DEN. That’s 1-833-546-6336. Or, email me at podcast@APprofessor.org, or reach me on Twitter @theAPprofessor. Talk to you next time.
Aileen: The A&P Professor is hosted by Kevin Patton, professor, blogger, and textbook author in human anatomy and physiology.
Kevin Patton: Some of the places, names, and events used in this episode are fictitious or are used fictitiously. Any resemblance to actual persons living or dead or actual events is purely coincidental.
This podcast is sponsored by the
Human Anatomy & Physiology Society
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Preview of Episode 36
Kevin Patton: Hi there, this is Kevin Patton with a brief audio introduction to episode number 36 of The A&P Professor podcast, also known as TAPP Radio. An audio dance party for teachers of human anatomy and physiology. In episode 36, we’re going to have some feedback and a couple of questions from listener Adam Rich, about online testing in A&P. And we discussed whether scientists have discovered a new blood vessel in bones. It’s the first anniversary episode of this podcast, can you believe it? So I’m going to review a list of some of the big ideas of the first year of TAPP Radio.
Kevin Patton: Well, I have a couple of words to sections as usual and they’re two very different terms we’re going to look at today. The first one is podcast and I selected that term because, well, we’re leading up to the first anniversary episode of this podcast. So let’s take a look at the word podcast. And that term is just like most of the anatomy, and physiology terms, and medical terms that we’ve looked at already as we do word dissections. That is, it’s made up of a couple of word parts that are smushed together to form a single term. So the first word part is pod and that refers to the iPod, which is a device made by Apple and as a matter of fact, that’s a registered trademark owned by Apple, the iPod, which is a portable device or downloading and then later listening to music or other audio files.
Kevin Patton: So that’s where the pod to comes from. And then the cast part of the word broadcast is broken off from the term broadcast. So if you put that together, podcast literally means a broadcast over an iPod. But here, iPod is used generically, probably much to the Chagrin of the folks at Apple who like to protect their trademarks. It is now being used generically. So it’s when you distribute things to be used on other devices, whether it’s an iPod literally, or some other kind of device, doesn’t matter. Could even be a PC or something like that. That’s not a portable device. So we’re downloading audio files from the Internet. And this was first proposed as a term back in 2004. Actually it was February 2004 when the journalist, Ben Hammersley, who is a British journalist living and working in London, was writing an article for The Guardian newspaper. And as he was patting out that article, he thought about this idea that maybe we need a name for this new phenomenon of downloading audio files and listening to them on the run or later or whatever. And he proposed the term podcast.
Kevin Patton: Now, there’s another similar term that is sometimes used but not nearly as much and that is netcast, which pretty much means the same thing except instead of Pod, we use net, which is just a piece of the term Internet. So, that would be internet broadcasting. Podcasting really is also internet broadcasting because that’s how you’re getting your audio file generally, is from the Internet. Usually from some data feed that’s coming across the Internet. So, that’s our term podcast. The second term that I wanted to sect is a newly proposed Latin phrase which is in fimo. It’s two words, I-N and then F-I-M-O. In fimo is meant to go in the same basket as the commonly used terms in vivo and in vitro. So let’s look at those quickly first to set the stage for in fimo.
Kevin Patton: In vivo is a Latin phrase to use commonly in English that means in life, vivo means life and in means in, so in vivo means in life. And is used to refer to a scientific observation or measurement in a living organism. In vitro on the other hand, means in glass. Vitro, meaning glass. So here it’s used metaphorically to refer to an observation or experimental measurement in a laboratory situation. It doesn’t literally have to be in a glass dish, or flask, or test tube or something, it just means out of the body and in an experimental isolated situation. So swinging back around to this newly proposed term in fimo, that literally means in excrement, or in manure, or in feces. Feces being used the way we would normally use that in human anatomy and physiology. And the term is been proposed to refer to when measurements are made or observations are made in feces that are examined scientifically.
Kevin Patton: It comes from the Latin word fimus, which is one of many Latin words for excrement. So why did they choose this Latin word in particular? Well, the authors of the recent article that is proposing this term, suggests that it’s most technically accurate in terms of the actual meaning and usage of the Latin word fimus, for what in A&P we would call feces. Another argument they make is that it’s used that way and a lot of literary examples, some famous names that you would recognize like Virgil and so on, apparently used the term when he was referring to feces. And so they claim that it has a more literary ring. So why not use that one? Now the question is, why not in fico based on the term feces?
Kevin Patton: Well, the authors point out that, that’s not technically accurate because the Latin translation of feces is the dregs of a wine cask, or you know the gunk on the bottom of any storage vessel, so it’s not literally dung or manure or excrement, it’s still stinky stuff, but they claim it’s not as technically accurate for that reason. Also, if you did go with feces, then in fico really wouldn’t work because it’s not grammatical in Latin. It would have to be in fecey, which you know everybody’s going to mess up. Or at least Kevin’s going to mess it up a lot. But in fimo, that’s really pretty easy to remember and you’re not likely to mistakenly add an S at the end or something like that.
Kevin Patton: Now, another question is, why not just use the term ex vivo, which is the currently used term, not used as frequently is in vivo or in vitro, but ex vivo means out of the living body, but that could refer to any material that leaves the body. So not just feces, but it could refer to urine, or sebum, or sweat, or anyone of a number of other materials. So if you really want a term that is specific to feces, and we’re doing a lot more studies in feces these days looking at the human microbiome and so you know this term, I guess as needed in those areas of research. So if you want to know more, then I do have a link in the show notes in the episode page.
Kevin Patton: This preview episode is sponsored by HAPS, the Human Anatomy & Physiology Society, promoting excellence and the teaching of human anatomy and physiology for over 30 years. Early Bird registration for the annual conference in Portland, Oregon is closing in mid February as our presentation proposals. I’m all signed up and ready to go. How about you? Go visit HAPS at theAPprofessor.org/haps. I have two recommendations for the A&P Professor book club this time, and these are books that have been mentioned at least briefly and way past episodes over the course of the last year. But back then we didn’t do the preview episodes so I wasn’t giving book club recommendations per se. So now’s a good time to go back and catch up on those. The first one is a book called The Anatomist by Bill Hayes. The classic medical tax known as Gray’s Anatomy is one of the most famous books ever created and it’s well known to most A&P teachers, I think.
Kevin Patton: Many of you are familiar with additions from the mid 1800s commonly available on those special discount tables and bookstores, the ones that are really nice books, but they’re very deeply discounted. You see that a lot. And you’ll see excerpts from the regional or at least one of the early editions of Gray’s Anatomy in the form of excerpts and illustrations that are found all over the internet. But Gray’s Anatomy is still in print. Of course, the current edition of it is updated and greatly expanded from those early additions. Oh, and by the way, the Gray and Gray’s Anatomy refers to Henry Gray, who’s responsible for getting that first edition up and running. And his name is spelled G-R-A-Y. If you search on the web for Grey’s Anatomy, that is Grey’s Anatomy with a G-R-E-Y, then you know what you’ll get instead, right?
Kevin Patton: The TV series. Of course, the name of the TV series is an intentional play on the title of the famous anatomy text. But it instead uses the name of the lead character, Meredith Grey, and her name is spelled G-R-E-Y. So it’s an intentional trick, but it really messes up your Google search sometimes when you’re looking for the original Gray’s Anatomy. In his book, the Anatomist Bill Hayes, tells the story of both the author and the illustrator of Gray’s Anatomy, while providing a deceptor’s view into the ingenuity of the human body. It’s a story that many A&P teachers will enjoy, and find that it deepens your appreciation of anatomical illustration in general. It certainly will give context and background that can be shared with A&P students. I was most fascinated with the story of Henry Vandyke Carter, the illustrator of Gray’s Anatomy. That story gave me even greater appreciation of the amazing quality and accuracy of the images in the original book.
Kevin Patton: I really won’t ever look at one of those illustrations the same way again after reading it. This book’s been around a while, but it’s a timeless story and it does not lose its value. You may want to listen to episode 29 of the A&P Professor podcast for my conversation with Erin Pride, in which he discusses this book in the context of human body donors and anatomical illustrations made from human specimens. The second book that I’m going to recommend is called Internet Surf and Turf Revealed. The essential guide to copyright fair use and finding media, and the authors are Barbara Waxer, whose name you might recognize, and Marsha Baum. I recommend this book because you want to make sure that you and your students understand whose turf they’re on when they surf the internet or media. It’s really a one of a kind book and it provides important, easy to understand information on copyright laws and the fair use doctrine as they relate to internet media.
Kevin Patton: You and your students will also learn how to search for public domain media. Over the years, I’ve used this book time and again to make sure I’m doing things properly and to help my own students develop the skills that they need that are informed by academic integrity. This book has been around for a while, well not nearly as long as Gray’s Anatomy, but the lessons in Internet Surf and Turf Revealed, also remain valuable. Hey, why don’t you listen to episode 28 of the A&P Professor podcast for my conversation with author Barbara Waxer, in which she answers questions about using media such as illustrations, videos, and other content, specifically in A&P courses. And after you listen, send me some more questions you have about staying on solid ground with proper use of media in your course. I’d love to have another chat with my longtime friend, Barbara Waxer on a future episode, and we need to know what you need to know. So call-in, write.
Kevin Patton: A searchable transcripts and a caption audio gram of this preview episode are funded by AAA, the American Association of Anatomists. At anatomy.org. Don’t forget, if you’re a member of HAPS, you’re eligible for a special, and I do mean special membership deal in AAA. Tell them Kevin sent you. Okay?
Kevin Patton: This is Kevin Patton signing off for now and reminding you to keep your questions, comments, and favorite recipes coming. Why not call the podcast hotline right now at 1-833-LION-DEN. That’s 1-833-546-6336. Or visit us at theAPprofessor.org.
Kevin Patton: See you next time.
Last updated: October 23, 2019 at 18:45 pm